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Since the start of the global HIV epidemic, women have been disproportionately affected by HIV in many regions.

Today, women constitute more than half of all people living with HIV.1AIDS-related illnesses remain the leading cause of death for women of reproductive age (15-44).2 Young women (15-24 years), and adolescent girls (10-19 years) in particular, account for a disproportionate number of new HIV infections.

In 2016, new infections among young women aged (15-24) were 44% higher than men their age.3 In eastern and southern Africa, young women made up 26% of new HIV infections despite only accounting for 10% of the population.

.4 Some 7,500 young women across the world acquiring HIV every week.5 In East and Southern Africa young women will acquire HIV five to seven years earlier than their male peers.6 In 2015, there were on average 4,500 new HIV infections among young women every week, double the number in young men.7 In west and central Africa, 64% of new HIV infections among young people in 2015 occurred among young women.8 The difference is particularly striking in Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea where adolescent girls aged 15–19 are five times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys of the same age.9 Even in regions such as Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where the population most affected by HIV is injecting drugs users, the majority of whom are men, women make up a rising proportion of people living with HIV.

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Explore this page to find out more about why women and girls are at risk of HIV, HIV testing and counselling, treatment for women and girls living with HIV, reducing mother to child transmission, HIV prevention programmes and the way forward.

The poorest women may have little choice but to adopt behaviours that put them at risk of infection, including transactional and intergenerational sex, earlier marriage, and relationships that expose them to violence and abuse.Healthcare providers often lack the training and skills to deliver youth-friendly services and do not fully understand laws around the age of consent.18 In many countries, organisations cannot legally provide SRHR and HIV services to people under 18-years-old because it is seen as encouraging ‘prostitution’ or the trafficking of minors and may bring the organisation into conflict with the law.19 A study of young women aged 18-24,in Soweto, South Africa, found they knew where to obtain SRH information and services but that common experiences of providers’ unsupportive attitudes, power dynamics in relationships and communication issues with parents and community members prevented respondents from accessing and utilising the information and services they needed.20 A study on SRH services in Indonesia found that, in large part, sexual activity outside of marriage, often referred to as ‘free sex’, was viewed as unacceptable by both service providers and young people themselves, due to dominant cultural and religious norms.As a result, service providers were often reluctant to provide SRH services to unmarried but sexually active young people, and unmarried young people were too ashamed or afraid to ask for help.21 Age-restrictive laws, such as those that ban contraception under a certain age, also act as barriers to SRHR and HIV services for young women.22 Mandatory parental consent has been shown to deter young women from accessing SRHR and HIV services due to fear of disclosure of an HIV positive status or punishment.23 As a result of age restrictions, in Kenya, Rwanda and Senegal over 70% of unmarried sexually active girls aged 15 to 19 have not had their contraception needs met.24 Adolescent girls and young women belonging to key affected populations are also negatively affected by laws that criminalise injecting drug use, sex work and homosexuality.25 Their ability to protect themselves from human rights violations and HIV are further amplified by their age.26 Despite this, even where programmes for key populations exist, the presence of ‘youth-friendly’ services to address the specific needs of young people from these groups are normally lacking.27 Studies have shown that increasing educational achievement among women and girls is linked to better SRH outcomes, including delayed childbearing, safer births and safer abortions.28 It has also been shown to be linked to reduced risk of partner violence, another factor that makes women and girls vulnerable to HIV.29 Research has shown a direct correlation between girls’ educational attainment and HIV risk; girls with at least six years of school education are more likely to be able to protect themselves from HIV.30.In many instances, these relationships are transactional in nature, in that they are non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationships motivated by the implicit assumption that sex will be exchanged for material support or other benefits.46 Transactional sex with an older man is more likely to expose young women to unsafe sexual behaviours, low condom use and an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections.47 A long-term study of age-disparate sex and HIV risk for young women took place between 2002 to 2012 in South Africa.It is estimated that in South Africa a third of sexually active adolescent girls will experience a relationship with a man at least five years older than them.

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